Rencana

Fitnah barah masyarakat, binasakan negara

PENYEBARAN fitnah melalui media sosial dalam kalangan masyarakat masa kini semakin berleluasa dan sukar ditangani. – Foto ihsan Google

PENYEBARAN fitnah melalui media sosial dalam kalangan masyarakat masa kini semakin berleluasa dan sukar ditangani. Kebanyakan aplikasi media sosial seperti Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp dan Telegram diguna bagi menyebarkan pelbagai berita dan cerita palsu berunsur fitnah.

 

Bagi umat Islam, kita dituntut menyelidiki terlebih dulu berita diterima sebelum disebar.Fitnah adalah terma dalam bahasa Arab yang mempunyai pelbagai maksud seperti dijelaskan ahli bahasa dan ulama silam, Abu Hasan al-Jurjani. Menurutnya, fitnah ialah sesuatu yang menjelaskan mengenai keadaan sesuatu, sama ada baik atau buruk.

Kamus al-Munjid, yang dianggap paling lengkap dan komperehensif dan dijadikan kamus utama oleh pelbagai pusat pengajian Islam seluruh dunia pula menyatakan beberapa maksud fitnah. Antara maksudnya ialah sangat mengagumkan, ujian, cubaan serta pemberontakan.

Kamus Dewan pula menterjemah fitnah sebagai tuduhan berbentuk kisah dan khabar yang diada-adakan untuk memburukkan atau merosakkan nama baik seseorang, keluarga, masyarakat dan negara.

Berdasarkan pengertian ini, dapatlah difahami bahawa perkataan fitnah mempunyai maksud bertujuan menguji manusia, sama ada tetap dan teguh dengan kebenaran walaupun pelbagai ancaman, tuduhan, cercaan, penganiayaan serta kezaliman ditimpa ke atasnya.

Firman Allah SWT dalam surah al-Ankabut ayat 2 dan 3 yang bermaksud: “Apakah manusia mengira bahawa mereka akan dibiarkan, hanya dengan mengatakan, ‘Kami telah beriman, dan mereka tidak diuji’. Dan sesungguhnya, Kami telah menguji orang sebelum mereka, maka Allah pasti mengetahui orang benar dan pasti mengetahui orang yang dusta.”

Barah masyarakat Melayu

Pada peringkat permulaan Islam, perkataan fitnah dalam al-Quran lebih mengarah kepada perbuatan kufur dan syirik. Perkembangan Islam seterusnya memperlihatkan perkataan ini lebih dinamik, iaitu menjurus kepada tindakan mengusir seseorang dari kampung halamannya, merampas harta kekayaan seseorang, penganiayaan, eksploitasi, penyeksaan serta kezaliman.

Bentuk penggunaannya yang berbeza menurut ahli tafsir adalah disebabkan faktor budaya, realiti dan fenomena masyarakat yang berkembang.

Pemahaman fitnah dalam masyarakat Malaysia lebih terarah kepada tuduhan buruk kepada seseorang untuk mengaib dan memalukan. Antara tanda perasaan hasad dengki ialah penyebaran fitnah, tuduhan, mengaibkan, umpatan dan mencerca di belakang melalui surat layang, rencana, buku, akhbar dan penyebaran khabar angin.

Sebenarnya semua perbuatan berkenaan sudah lama menjadi barah kepada masyarakat Melayu yang membawa kepada kejatuhan Kesultanan Melayu Melaka. Penyebaran fitnah akan berterusan selagi wujud sifat meninggi diri dan dengki dalam diri manusia yang akhirnya membawa kepada kehancuran ummah.

Gejala sosiobudaya negatif

Kemajuan sains dan teknologi bukan faktor mengurangkan penyebaran fitnah, sebaliknya kecanggihan media sosial kini menyemarakkan lagi perbuatan fitnah, sekiranya manusia tidak amanah dan bertanggungjawab menggunakannya.

Apabila manusia berasa dirinya lebih baik, kuat dan mulia berbanding orang lain, selagi itulah fitnah akan wujud dalam masyarakat. Oleh itu, perasaan hasad dengki akan menjadi gejala sosiobudaya negatif yang memperlihatkan isi hati manusia dalam masyarakat moden masa kini.

Lebih memburukkan lagi keadaan apabila penyebaran fitnah turut menular dalam kalangan golongan cendekiawan. Terbantutnya kecemerlangan ilmiah di universiti pada hemat saya, disebabkan beberapa faktor, antaranya wujud percakaran dalaman ataupun konflik antara peribadi, antara jabatan dan antara fakulti.

Berdasarkan perbincangan ini, dapatlah dirumuskan bahawa fitnah menjadi satu cabaran dan ujian besar kepada masyarakat masa kini sekiranya tidak ditangani dengan bijak.

Akhlak, nilai murni

Al-Quran menceritakan bagaimana Nabi Yaakob AS sebagai seorang bapa menanggung kesedihan atas kehilangan anak kesayangan, Yusuf AS. Terjadinya perubahan pada penglihatan Yaakob AS kerana menahan pedihnya perpisahan.

Oleh itu, fitnah boleh menyebabkan berlaku kemudaratan pada kesihatan seseorang individu, bahkan boleh mematahkan semangat untuk berusaha. Malah yang lebih besar, fitnah boleh membawa kepada kecelaruan dalam masyarakat dan kehancuran sesebuah negara apabila manusia dikuasai hasad dengki, angkuh, tamak haloba dan gila kuasa.

Sekiranya masyarakat tidak dididik dengan akhlak dan nilai murni yang bertunjangkan iman dan takwa, mereka akan mudah dikuasai berita palsu yang membawa kepada porak peranda dalam masyarakat. Pada masa sama, wujud musuh yang sentiasa berusaha memecahbelahkan perpaduan masyarakat Islam yang teguh dengan prinsip ‘bersatu teguh, bercerai roboh’.

Kembali kepada asas agama

Sehubungan itu, masyarakat Islam perlu bijak menangani fitnah dengan mengamalkan sikap ‘tabayyun’ dan berhati-hati dengan berita disebarkan. Kebijaksanaan dan kesabaran menangani ujian fitnah akan membuahkan hasil apabila kebenaran dapat ditegakkan seperti dirakamkan al-Quran melalui kisah Nabi Yusuf AS dan Nabi Muhammad SAW.

Untuk membendung perbuatan fitnah dalam kalangan umat Islam, kita perlu kembali kepada prinsip asas agama, iaitu akidah, syariat dan akhlak. Islam meletakkan garis panduan jelas dalam menangani fitnah merosakkan kehidupan manusia di bumi Allah ini. Mereka yang ditimpa fitnah hendaklah bersabar dan mengambil langkah positif menanganinya, manakala anggota masyarakat juga perlu diberi kesedaran mengenai bahaya fitnah.

Setiap berita yang mereka sebarkan akan dipertanggungjawabkan di depan Allah SWT. Mereka hendaklah membalas keburukan dengan kebaikan dan yakin bahawa fitnah itu adalah ujian Allah SWT untuk meningkatkan keimanan serta ketakwaan kepada-Nya seperti yang dianjurkan Rasulullah SAW.

Rencana ditulis oleh  Prof Madya Dr Maimun Aqsha Lubis Abdin Lubis

Sumber diperolehi daripada Berita Harian Online.

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A Sarawak education system blueprint for the 21st century

IT is timely that education in Sarawak is now under a dedicated ministry. As Sarawak heads towards a digital economy, rapid technological advancements will outpace our organisations and human development.

Despite recent tweaks, our schooling system and educational culture are still of the industrial age, meant for producing mass literacy and assembly line workers, not the knowledge workers of a developed state. Our state education system requires nothing short of a revolution for it to power Sarawak’s coming economic transformation.

In the 19th century factory model of education, schools consist of long rows of classrooms occupied by students sorted by age. Every 30 minutes a bell rings and students are taught a subject unrelated to the previous one. Every student receives the same facts at the same time to remember for the same exam. The system is controlled by a central command that issue policies to make it run efficiently. The goal is to produce large numbers of similar workers for farms or factories, with only a small number needed for higher positions.

In addition to having this factory model, our present educational culture views entry into Cambridge or Harvard as the highest achievement in education. Consequently, most finish their education thinking they are not very smart.

Since university entrance is by scores in standardised tests, parents pressure their children to get high grades, and occupy their free time with extra tuition. Students try to maximise their scores by all means, including rote memorisation and leaked exam questions. Teachers focus on exam drills to produce more high scorers for the school so as to attract more funding from the ministry.

Finland is a small country to which many go to study their education system because their 15-year-olds regularly top the Programme for International Student Assessment (Pisa). Yet Finnish students do not sit for any high stakes standardised test until just prior to university entry.

We need a revolution in the way we understand organised education and its three components – curriculum (what we want students to learn), pedagogy (how we help them to learn), and assessment (measuring what they have learnt).

First, the curriculum. Human knowledge is now said to double every 13 months. Whatever propositional knowledge we teach will not be sufficient to equip our students to solve problems in the very different world they will find themselves in. Even now, a significant proportion of our graduates remain unemployed or underemployed.

In a 2014 survey of 400 US employers, 91 per cent agreed that for career success, “a candidate’s demonstrated capacity to think critically, communicate clearly, and solve complex problems is more important than his or her undergraduate major”. Hence the curriculum must be taught in a way that fosters these new skills.

Further, the majority of employers and students surveyed agreed that long-term career success requires not just knowledge and skills in a specific field, but also those that apply to a broad range of skills.

Though many parents think a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline has better job prospects, students should be given choices from a broad range of both science and arts subjects. For languages, while Bahasa Malaysia and English are taught from day one, students should have the additional option to choose Mandarin and other languages the school can offer.

Secondly, pedagogy. In the factory model teacher-centred classroom, the teacher decides what and when students should learn, and how they are to learn it. The teachers do most of the talking and students passively conform. Students even need to raise their hand for permission to speak or leave their seat. How can we expect students in such an environment to become independent and collaborative learners, and critical thinkers?

An education system where the students have no voice or choice and where only the teacher’s answer is ever right creates in students the fear of being wrong. It is difficult to become creative or be an entrepreneur if one is not willing to take the risk of being wrong.

We want our students to be creative, but at the same time we are educating them out of their natural creative capacity. We cannot expect them to be creative and innovative just by telling them to, by joining innovation contests or answering a different type of exam question. They need an education system where they are can take ownership of their learning, acquire knowledge actively and solve real world problems.

Before the information age, knowledge was in the hands of the teachers. Now, kids are online most of the time, having a device in their hands that can access a world of information. They need not be given information they can find for themselves, or memorise information that is retrieved faster electronically. Our pedagogy must change to reflect these new realities.

Thirdly, assessment. This is helpful in education because it enables the student to know how well he is learning. Ideally students should receive a description of their performance (and not just an A or B grade) so that they know what remedial steps to take.

When the assessment is by a common test taken by all the students, student performance can be ranked against each other. Often such ranking is used for high stakes purposes like entry into limited university places. The problem with that is students and teachers start teaching and learning to the test until getting high scores becomes the goal of education itself.

When this happens, the assessment actually reduces learning because students are only trying to meet the standards of a test which cannot cover everything, and with no outlet for creativity. Hence, assessments should be used to diagnose and remedy a student’s knowledge gaps, but high stakes standardised testing should be avoided until it is absolutely necessary.
To be continued tomorrow.
Dr William K Lim is associate professor in the Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faulty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (Unimas).

Sumber diperolehi daripada Borneo Post Online