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Bahasa Melayu mampu jadi penyampai ilmu Sains, Matematik

KHALID (kiri) menyerahkan cenderahati kepada Abdul Adzis sambil diperhatikan Mohd Yusof selepas Ceramah Umum Jawatankuasa Tetap Bahasa Melayu: Keberterimaan Istilah Sains dan Matematik dalam bahasa Melayu di IPG Kampus Pulau Pinang, Georgetown, baru-baru ini. – Foto Zuhainy Zulkifli

 

GEORGETOWN : Persoalan kesesuaian bahasa Melayu untuk digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran (PdP) Sains serta Matematik tidak sepatutnya timbul.

 Pengarah Institut Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Prof Datuk Dr Mohd Yusof Othman, berkata mata pelajaran terbabit adalah berkonsepkan pemahaman.

Katanya, ia lebih kepada cara melahirkan insan yang gemar berfikir daripada individu yang suka menggunakan medium teknologi.

“Tiada sebarang kajian pun yang menegaskan bahasa Melayu tidak mampu digunakan dalam dua subjek itu,” katanya pada Ceramah Umum Jawatankuasa Tetap Bahasa Melayu: Keberterimaan Istilah Sains dan Matematik dalam bahasa Melayu di Institut Perguruan Guru (IPG) Kampus Pulau Pinang, di sini.

Yang turut hadir, Ketua Pengarah Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) dan Pengerusi Jawatan Kuasa Tetap Bahasa Melayu (JKTBM), Datuk Abdul Adzis Abas dan Pengarah IPG Kampus Pulau Pinang, Khalid Ahmad.

Mohd Yusof berkata, negara seperti Amerika Syarikat (AS), Kanada, Australia dan New Zealand menggunakan bahasa Inggeris kerana mempunyai kaitan dengan sejarah kolonial Inggeris.

“Negara seperti Perancis, Jerman, Itali dan Switzerland pula masih menggunakan bahasa masing-masing sebagai jati diri.

“Diharapkan kerajaan dapat mengangkat bahasa Melayu ke tahap tersendiri dan jika politik hari ini memecahbelahkan bahasa, ia amat mengecewakan.

Hebat kerana berilmu

“Kita tidak boleh berasa hebat apabila (semata-mata) kita berbahasa Inggeris kerana kehebatan yang sebenar adalah kerana kita berilmu,” katanya.

Sementara itu, Abdul Adzis berkata, ceramah itu diharap dapat memupuk semangat patriotisme dan perpaduan pada peringkat nasional, sekali gus memperluaskan penggunaan bahasa Melayu dalam pelbagai bidang.

“Pada masa sama, bahasa Melayu ini sendiri mempunyai nilai kesusasteraan dan agama yang wajar dipelihara,” katanya.

Ceramah dwitahunan anjuran DBP sejak 1999 itu, disertai kira-kira 650 pensyarah dan bakal guru.

Ia bertujuan menyebarluaskan maklumat mengenai fungsi, peranan dan tanggung jawab JKTBM.

Hasrat JKTBM juga mahu bakal guru didedahkan dengan Majlis Bahasa Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia (MABBIM).

Sumber diperolehi daripada Berita Harian Online.

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Rencana

The upside and downside of homework

“NO homework today,” the teacher told the class.

The young schoolchildren were elated. It was music to their ears.

That was how we typically reacted when told there was no homework while we were still in primary school.

Without homework, we could watch cartoons on TV, play with our siblings, wouldn’t get scolded by our parents for not doing or being unable to do our homework, and above all, there was no worry about having to face an angry teacher for not handing in our after-school assignment.

Generally, children do not like homework. There are also parents who do not like their children getting too much homework although not all are on the same page, especially those lucky enough to have academically-inclined children who love homework.

thesundaypost recently spoke to several parents on children and homework, and their comments point to the prevailing attitude on the subject.

Jimmy Ling, a father of three, said many young children needed their parents to help with their homework.

The problem, he added, was that the situation at home differed from family to family since lifestyle or status is not universally similar.

This means parental involvement with their children’s schoolwork at home also varies. Not all parents have the time for their children’s homework. Some may be too exhausted after a long day at the office.

Ling pointed out that since not all children lived in the same home environment, there was ‘an inequality of sorts’ in that some of them were fortunate to have a conducive atmosphere to do their homework while others may not be so lucky.

Moreover, cases abound of schoolchildren who are disadvantaged by their parents’ low education level or illiteracy. These youngsters would struggle with their schoolwork as their parents could not help them even if they wanted to.

It has been noted that non-Mandarin-speaking children who attend Chinese schools usually find it hard doing their homework as their parents are unable to offer any help.

Ling shared, “An education professor once confided to me he thought the whole idea of homework actually does not make sense. It implies school hours are not enough, so students are made to continue their schooling at home.

“The professor was worried the practice of giving students homework could possibly be an attempt to push some of the teaching tasks to parents.”

Ling said the professor also told him based some case studies, homework has no benefit at all to children up to Primary 3, very poor benefit to Primary 4-6, minimal benefit to Forms 1-3, and only some reasonable benefit to Forms 4-5.

“Thus, we feel compelled to ask why students and families have to be put through all the stresses for such poor gains. Surely, time could be better spent developing other life skills,” he added.

Risk of loathing school

Fellow parent Levin Wong said children need rest after long school hours and the burden of additional homework may make them loathe schooling.

He pointed out that parents should encourage their children to focus on their lessons in class and relax after school so that they wouldn’t find education a chore – nor miss out on their growing up years.

He added that children would be better off spending some time in sports and other creative pursuits than being mentally burdened with the drudgery of homework.

Of course, others may feel some form of homework is necessary to reinforce what students have learnt, especially as they progress to upper primary school and have to study more subjects.

“But when both parents and students start suffering from homework-induced anxiety, then it’s time to sound the alarm bells,” Wong emphasised.

Thumbs-down

Samantha Lim, who migrated to Australia with her family about a year ago, said if homework was just about doing schoolwork at home, she would give it a big thumbs-down.

She does not support the idea of giving homework, especially to primary school or kindergarten pupils but pointed out that if homework were about asking children to do additional fun reading, learning to help their parents with the house chores or play some sports, then she would agree to it 100 per cent.

Lim insisted all schoolwork should be done within school hours and not brought back to be completed at home.

She felt the conventional homework was already a very old-fashioned concept and should be discontinued, reiterating that school children under 12 years old should not be physically and, more importantly, emotionally burdened with homework with the strict instruction they must complete it or be punished.

Lim said when she was still living in Kuching, she was surprised to learn some parents considered homework as very important to their children, even as young as six years old, adding that even if the children cried while struggling with the bulk of homework, the parents did not mind.

“No wonder when my son, Shaymus, was still in kindergarten, I used to see him struggling under the weight of homework, and when it came to his final year, I was shocked to see how much more homework he was given.

“I was told the amount of homework was increased following complaints from parents that their children were given too little of it.

“I was speechless. Didn’t they realise such a heavy workload would risk making the children hate school?”

Lim said her son later attended a private primary school in Kuching for six months before they moved to Australia. The school hours were from 7.30am to 3.30pm – meaning the children spent eight hours in school – the same time adults would commonly spend at work.

She added that although exhausted after coming home from school, her son still could not rest because he was expected do some of the work he couldn’t finish in school – plus revision for upcoming exams.

Lim considers revision for exams at home as equivalent to homework, noting that this deprived children of the time they otherwise could spend on fun reading, family bonding, sports or learning to do house chores.

“In fact, fun reading can be very beneficial to kids because through it, they can acquire extra knowledge which they can’t from textbooks,” she said, adding that having adequate family bonding time and taking part in sports are also important as they help children develop wholesome characters and keep them healthy.

Enough sleep

Lim said children must have enough sleep – nine hours at least, ideally. In short, she added, parents should raise happy healthy children instead of study-robots.

Shaymus is now attending a public school in the suburb of Melbourne where they live.

According to Lim, the school has a no homework policy – so all the schoolwork will be completed within school hours.

The only school assignment that could be regarded as homework is reading the take-home books with parental guidance, if need be.

School hours are from 9am to 3.30pm, with two to three breaks in between. Children are encouraged to play around the school compound during break times.

Lim said she noticed a significant change in Shaymus after they migrated to Australia. She believes this was due to the different school environment.

“Shaymus used to be a very quiet, shy and anxious-looking when he was in Kuching. But now, he looks to be bursting with confidence and is also a very obedient and happy kid.

“I was a bit surprised to learn that school children Down Under have certain rights. And one funny thing is the teachers reprimand the children by singing to them instead of screaming or yelling.

“I believe it’s little things like these that can make a difference to a child’s character.”

Lim once asked a teacher what she, as a mother, should do to help her son academically at home besides fun reading, and was told there was no necessity for this and she instead should spend quality time doing things together with her son.

She confessed she has become a happier person as she does not have to rush her son to school very early in the morning to beat the traffic jam nor shout and scream at him for neglecting or forgetting to do his homework.

Not overloading

Kathy Choo, a graduate of Early Child Education who now works in Perth, Australia as an early childhood teacher, believes homework could be beneficial so long as it does not overly deprive students of their free time.

She said young children need a tremendous amount of repetition of a concept to transform it from a short-term to a long-term memory.

However, she cautioned it would not be advisable to overload children with homework because they still have not acquired the ability to regulate their emotions. Besides, too much homework for little children can be stressful to their parents as well.

“As students get higher and higher in their education, so should the amount of homework be more but the increase should be gradual.

“Over time, the students’ relying on parental help will decrease as they move up to higher levels. Eventually, they will develop a sense of responsibility and independence to do their own work. By then, they are already in secondary school. Homework should be more research-based in nature.”

Choo said she supported the idea of giving young children homework but minimally, considering they also have activities outside school.

She believes homework could provide a sense of continuity in learning – from school to home and vice versa.

“After all, we must remember parents are children’s first teachers at home,” she added.

According to Choo, at the preschool where she teaches, the focus is more on play-based learning because children below nine learn better through play.

“Basically, very young children learn about things by using the five senses – touch, taste, see, hear, and smell. Thus, their place of learning will usually have a lot of manipulative items for them to explore and experience.”

She said the children in her school do not carry bags laden with books, adding that the youngsters just go to school with bags containing only a drink bottle, a lunch pack, and a homework folder for updates.

She explained the teachers taught concepts through the manipulative modus operandi, following up with academic activities, involving books, pencils, worksheets, art or crafting tools.

“Individual human beings differ from one another in character and aptitude. Thus, the teachers have to study these differences and divide the students into groups – even when they are in the same class – according to their learning abilities.

“This allows the teachers to tailor their teaching methods in a more detailed manner to suit the learning needs of the student groups. This means the homework assignments the students bring home are not the same.

“There’s always the close personal monitoring of the students’ progress for groups or individuals and it’s always possible some students can be moved from one group to another after their progress has been assessed.”

Choo said the so-called homework children do in her school usually require very little time and effort and they are more fun than toil.

“The idea is not to give the little ones too much stress but make them feel schooling is a pleasant thing.”

According to her, some schools in Australia even go to the extent of considering the demographics of the area in which the schools are located.

If most of the families consist of both working parents, then homework will be kept to a minimum so as not to burden both parents and students. And students showing difficulties in their studies may have their parents called in for discussion to see how the problem might be solved.

Different views

Jacob Anding of Kota Samarahan, a father of five children from primary to lower secondary schools, has a different view of homework.

He said he always liked to see his children busy with homework after coming home from school.

“I don’t to see them too free and up to all sorts of mischief,” he said with a laugh.

“I especially dislike them fighting with me for the TV remote control. I want to watch my favourite sports channel after dinner to unwind from a hard day’s work.”

Jacob believes school children should be kept as busy as possible with their studies, saying, “After all, their duty as students is to study. Thus, homework will make students study, especially those who never show any initiative to do revision.”

Violet Benling, a Primary 2 pupil from a private school in Kuching was asked what she would do without homework and she replied, “I can draw pictures, do colouring, watch YouTube or read storybooks.”

She said she didn’t want to feel like she was still in school after coming home.

thesundaypost could not get comments from school authorities as they are not allowed to give press statements without prior approval.

Sumber diperolehi daripada Borneo Post Online

Rencana

Suplemen undang kesan sampingan

Artikel ditulis oleh Osman Lisut

JANGAN mudah terpengaruh dengan aliran terkini masyarakat untuk kekal sihat dengan mengambil makanan kesihatan tambahan atau suplemen kerana penggunaannya belum tentu menjamin kesejahteraan seperti didakwa.

Ini berikutan kesan pengambilannya bergantung kepada tahap kesihatan individu dan dikhuatiri pengambilan yang tidak sesuai mengundang kesan sampingan yang boleh memudaratkan kesihatan pengguna.

Kesannya bergantung kepada tahap kesihatan seseorang dan berbeza mengikut keupayaan sistem badan menerima bahan berkenaan yang didakwa meningkatkan kecergasan.

Bagi mengelak kejadian tidak diingini kesan pengambilan suplemen, Pengerusi Program Pemakanan dan Dietetik, Pusat Pengajian Sains Kesihatan Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Kelantan, Prof Madya Dr Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed, menasihatkan pengguna berjumpa doktor untuk menjalani pemeriksaan kesihatan.

Beliau berkata, rujukan awal penting bagi membolehkan doktor menilai tahap kesihatan mereka ketika itu mengenal pasti adalah mereka sesuai atau sebaliknya.

“Sebagai contoh, dalam keadaan wanita hamil kekurangan nutrien dan mengalami keperluan mendesak, suplemen vitamin dan mineral membantu mengekalkan kesihatan ibu dan bayi,” katanya kepada BH.

Selain ibu hamil, Dr Hamid Jan berkata, individu yang disarankan mendapatkan nutrien termasuklah ibu yang menyusukan bayi, pesakit terlantar di hospital, kanak-kanak bermasalah tumbesaran dan warga emas kurang selera makan.

PENGERUSI Program Pemakanan dan Dietetik, Pusat Pengajian Sains Kesihatan USM Kelantan, Prof Madya Dr Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed. – Foto Mahzir Mat Isa

Beliau berkata, setiap pengguna mempunyai sebab munasabah mengambil suplemen, namun biasanya berkait rapat dengan kesihatan.

“Sebab lain dipercayai bertujuan mengekalkan kecantikan, melambatkan proses penuaan dan mengurangkan risiko serangan penyakit kronik,” katanya.

Suplemen boleh dikategorikan kepada empat iaitu vitamin, mineral dan multivitamin; merawat penyakit tertentu, berasaskan herba serta berasaskan minyak ikan.

Dr Hamid Jan berkata, dalam pengguna mengejarkan impian berkenaan, harus diingatkan suplemen bukanlah pengganti diet seimbang.

“Individu yang mengambil supplemen mungkin merasakan mereka tidak mampu mencapai nutrien daripada diet normal atas sebab tertentu.

“Jika boleh, setiap individu perlu berusaha mendapatkan nutrien daripada sumber semula jadi iaitu melalui diet seimbang tanpa bergantung harap kepada makanan tambahan,” katanya.

Pilihan diet lengkap kata Dr Hamid Jan, adalah daripada pilihan buah-buahan, sayuran, bijiran penuh, susu, ikan dan minyak. Pemilihan sajian sihat ini mencukupi untuk menampung keperluan nutrien harian.

Katanya lagi, diet seimbang mempunyai zat lengkap dan mempunyai komponen nutrien yang pastinya lebih menjamin kesihatan.

“Contohnya sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan mempunyai vitamin, mineral, serat dan nutrien yang berupaya mencegah pelbagai penyakit.

“Manakala pil multivitamin hanya mempunyai vitamin dan mineral sahaja. Pengambilan serat yang tinggi secara saintifik terbukti mencegah penyakit kronik seperti kanser usus.

“Phytonutrient yang juga nutrien daripada sumber tumbuh-tumbuhan kaya bahan antioksidan juga membantu mencegah serangan penyakit kronik,” katanya.

Info

  • Pengambilan suplemen tanpa menjalani pemeriksaan doktor dikhuatiri mengundang padah termasuk terdedah kepada risiko penyakit hati dan buah pinggang.
  • Tidak semua suplemen yang diambil boleh diterima badan kerana sebahagian daripadanya disingkirkan dan berlaku pembaziran memandangkan harganya yang mahal.
  • Tubuh menyingkirkan vitamin berlebihan (terutama vitamin larut air seperti vitamin B dan C) melalui air kencing.
  • Pengambilan disebabkan pengaruh strategi pemasaran dan testimoni pengguna mendorong mereka mengambilnya walaupun tidak perlu.
  • Faktor kesibukan tugas menyebabkan mereka beranggapan diet harian tidak lengkap dan tanpa menjalani pemeriksaan terus mengambil suplemen.

Sumber diperolehi daripada Berita Harian Online.

Rencana, utusan malaysia

Berita palsu atau berita jitu?

Rencana ditulis oleh Datuk Seri Ti Lian Ker

Apabila kerajaan meluluskan Rang Undang-Undang Antiberita Tidak Benar 2018, ramai pihak terasa sangsi dan tertekan oleh undang-undang ini yang diluluskan untuk membendung dan menyekat penyebaran sebarang berita palsu dengan sengaja.

Oleh sebab kebanyakan kita mungkin pernah terlibat melakukan penyebaran berita palsu sama ada secara sengaja atau tidak. Maka ada antara kita tidak selesa dengan kewujudan Akta Antiberita Tidak Benar ini. Ahli politik pembangkang pula mengambil kesempatan ini untuk memomok orang ramai tentang kemungkinan mereka dihukum atau dipenjara apabila terlibat dalam aktiviti penyebaran atau perkongsian berita yang diterima.

Pengamal-pengamal berita media baru seperti portal, blog, Facebook dan sebagainya juga mula merasa beban dan memikul tanggungjawab untuk menapis dan mengawal diri dari terlibat dalam penyebaran berita palsu yang sudah menjadi kebiasaan dan amalan untuk menarik minat pembaca.

Sebenarnya Akta Antiberita Tidak Benar ini bukan sahaja diper­kenalkan di Malaysia. Namun begitu berita palsu disebarkan kononnya Malaysia adalah negara pertama yang meluluskan Akta Antiberita Tidak Benar dengan tajuk, “Malaysia Votes for World’s First Anti-Fake News Legislation”. (Rujukan:https://www.google.com.my/amp/variety.com/2018/digital/asia/malaysia-votes-for-anti-fake-news-legislation-1202742220/amp/ )

Hakikatnya Jerman adalah negara pertama meluluskan undang-undang mengawal berita palsu. Presiden Perancis, Emmanuel Macron yang menjadi mangsa berita palsu, juga mencadangkan undang-undang untuk mengawal propaganda dan berita palsu. Negara-negara jiran seperti Indonesia, Filipina dan Singapura juga mencadangkan langkah-langkah mengawal berita palsu.

Mengapakah kita perlu mengambil langkah dan tindakan mengawal penyebaran berita palsu? Pertamanya kita perlu menjaga kesahihan fakta dan kepakaran di mana fakta-fakta palsu telah diviralkan dan disebarkan sehingga ramai menerima fakta yang palsu sebagai benar dan di sebaliknya yang benar sebagai palsu. Kerap kalinya berita palsu diberi kesahihan dengan penyebaran yang lebih kerap. Biasanya berita palsu ditulis dengan cara sensasi dan senang diterima serta menyakinkan.

Sebaliknya berita yang jitu dan berdasarkan fakta yang benar memerlukan penjelasan dan pembentangan secara ilmiah yang mungkin tidak menarik hati pembaca atau memerlukan pemahaman dan penghadaman yang lebih mendalam.

 

Memupuk

Maka berita palsu dapat membantut dan mengancam penyebaran berita benar dan ilmiah dan pendapat serta hujah pakar-pakar mungkin dipinggirkan apabila berita palsu diviral dan diketengahkan serta diterima sebagai benar.

Keduanya, berita palsu sudah dan telah digunakan oleh politikus untuk memprovokasi emosi rakyat terhadap pihak kerajaan berani mencabar institusi. Misalannya tugas dan kewibawaan institusi seperti polis, SPRM, Jabatan Kehakiman dan sebagainya telah kerap dan sering kali digunakan pembangkang sebagai strategi memupuk perasaan benci dan hilang keyakinan terhadap institusi.

Apabila mereka sudah berjaya membakar emosi dan imaginasi pembaca, akhirnya pembangkang dengan berani membuat dan mereka cerita-cerita palsu terhadap Perdana Menteri dan keluarga. Berita-berita palsu ini amat berkesan dalam menimbulkan perasaan benci dan api emosi. Kejayaan pembangkang memprovokasi pemikiran secara emosi atau emotional thinking berbanding dengan pemikiran rasional atau rational thinking adalah satu trend yang tidak sihat dan boleh mengancam ketenteraman, dan keselamatan negara.

Berita palsu turut digunakan sebagai propaganda dan senjata dalam menjatuhkan beberapa negeri dan pemerintah di benua Arab melalui Revolusi Arab Springs. Akhirnya pengganti mereka adalah boneka dalam genggaman kuasa-kuasa besar.

Misalannya apabila perisikan Amerika Syarikat (AS) menyebar berita palsu bahawa Iran di bawah pemerintahan Saddam Hussein memiliki weapon of mass destruction ataupun senjata pemusnahan secara besar-besaran, dunia terpengaruh dengan propaganda AS yang semata-mata ingin menundukkan Saddam Hussein yang berani mencabar negara Uncle Sam itu.

Akhirnya apabila keadaan sebenar diketahui, sudah tiada masa untuk menyesal kerana nasi sudah menjadi bubur dan arang sudah menjadi abu. Apabila berita palsu boleh direka dan dapat disebar dengan begitu senang sekali, keselamatan negara kita akan tergugat. Lebih-lebih lagi apabila musuh-musuh negara menangguk di air keruh.

Gerak-geri pembangkang termasuk bekas Perdana Menteri, Tun Dr. Mahathir yang sanggup menjadi alat media asing semata-mata mahu merampas kuasa adalah membimbangkan. Inilah ancaman sebenarnya berita palsu pada negara.

Mahu tidak mahu, kita perlu mempertahankan kedaulatan undang-undang dan meletakkan kepercayaan kita pada sistem kehakiman untuk menentukan fakta sahih, yang mana palsu dan yang mana tidak.

Sudah tentu Akta Anti Berita Palsu akan menjadi perisai untuk mempertahankan solidariti, kedaulatan dan kemerdekaan negara kita Malaysia.

Sumber diperolehi daripada Utusan Malaysia Online.

 

Rencana

Moral education still relevant — Ministry

KUALA LUMPUR: The Moral Education subject implemented by the Ministry of Education in primary and secondary schools for non-Muslim students is still relevant and in line with the requirements of the 21st century curriculum.

Deputy Education Minister Datuk Chong Sin Woon said with changes to the curriculum implemented from time to time, the subject had been able to build resilience among students as well as produce students who could communicate, think, work as a team, have principle, are curious, informed, caring, and patriotic.

“The subject introduced to non-Muslim students at primary and secondary levels is aimed at nurturing in children moral values, to be responsible human beings who will be able to contribute to the harmony and stability of the country and the global community.

“The Moral Education curriculum was transformed beginning with Year One and Form One students through the Primary School Standard Curriculum (KSSR) and the Secondary School Standard Curriculum (KSSM),” he told the Dewan Negara yesterday.

He said this in reply to Senator Datuk Bashir Alias who wanted to know whether the Moral Education curriculum was still relevant in the current environment.

On crime statistics involving students nationwide, Chong said that based on the Student’s Self-Help System, only 0.04 per cent was reported among primary school pupils while 0.028 per cent was recorded in secondary schools. 

Sumber diperolehi daripada Borneo Post Online

Rencana

Gajet, internet sumber rujukan pelajar abad 21

Artikel ditulis oleh Dr Maslawati Mohamad

KEPERLUAN membaca terutama dalam kalangan pelajar mengalami peralihan daripada keperluan membaca bahan bercetak kepada membaca bahan yang diperoleh melalui internet.

Walaupun ia nampak mudah, namun dalam kalangan pelajar terutama yang berada di institusi pengajian tinggi, sumber ini turut mempunyai permasalahannya.

Untuk itu, beberapa strategi perlu dalam mengatasi permasalahan ini dalam meningkatkan tahap pemahaman mereka terhadap bahan ilmiah yang diperoleh melalui internet, seterusnya membantu pelajar dalam usaha menyiapkan tugasan, menjawab soalan kuiz dan ketika membuat persiapan menghadapi peperiksaan.   Oleh kerana kebanyakan bahan bacaan ilmiah di internet adalah dalam bahasa Inggeris, ramai pelajar menghadapi masalah memahami apa yang dibaca sepenuhnya disebabkan kurangnya penguasaan kosa kata serta terminologi dalam disiplin akademik bagi bahasa Inggeris.

ANTARA laman web dan kamus dalam talian yang memberikan pelbagai kemudahan kepada pelajar.

 

Kamus atas talian percuma

Namun, semua ini boleh diatasi melalui penggunaan kamus secara atas talian. Kamus atas talian memberikan pelbagai kemudahan kepada pelajar. Antara kelebihannya, ia ditawarkan secara percuma. Selain itu, ia turut memberikan panduan tatacara sebutan dengan betul.

Pelajar hanya perlu mendengar cara sebutan perkataan berkenaan dan meniru sebutan itu. Ada dua jenis sebutan yang biasa digunakan iaitu sebutan cara British dan sebutan cara Amerika. Ada juga kamus secara atas talian yang menggunakan visual  bagi membantu dan meningkatkan kefahaman pelajar terhadap sesuatu persoalan atau permasalahan.

Bagi pelajar dalam bidang sains dan perubatan, mereka boleh melayari laman web Merriam-webster online dictionary memandangkan di dalamnya terkandung definisi bagi terminologi bidang sains dan perubatan.

Selain itu, ada juga kamus atas talian lain yang tidak kurang popular dalam kalangan pelajar iaitu DictionaryReference.com. Ini memandangkan, kamus ini menggunakan perkataan yang mudah untuk difahami pelajar terutama mereka yang lemah dalam bahasa Inggeris. Ada kalanya, kamus yang menggunakan perkataan agak kompleks sehingga menyukarkan pelajar memahami definisi diberikan.

Malah, ada juga kamus atas talian yang menyenaraikan cadangan perkataan mempunyai pengertian hampir menyamai sesuatu perkataan cuba dicari pelajar.

Pelajar juga boleh menggunakan Google Images memaparkan imej yang memberi gambaran sesuatu perkataan. Contohnya, perkataan gallbladder stones. Pelajar hanya perlu menaip perkataan berkenaan menggunakan Google Images dan imej berkaitan batu hempedu boleh dilihat melalui paparan imej di skrin komputer.

Penggunaan Google Translate juga didapati agak popular dalam kalangan pelajar. Google Translate membantu pelajar mendapat gambaran kepada makna bahan bacaan berkenaan.  Namun begitu, terjemahan yang diberikan tidak memberi makna tepat. Contohnya, perkataan bahasa Inggeris Run! There’s a fire memberikan terjemahan ‘Jalankan. Kebakaran berlaku.’ Namun begitu, terjemahan sebenar ialah ‘Lari! Terdapat kebakaran.’

Ada juga bahan bacaan daripada laman web tertentu yang menggunakan kosa kata sukar dan memaparkan informasi terlalu baharu kepada pelajar.  Oleh itu, untuk memahami bahan bacaan berkenaan atau sesuatu topik yang sukar difahami, ada beberapa laman web yang boleh membantu seperti SlideShare dan juga YouTube.

SlideShare adalah laman web yang banyak menggunakan Powerpoint. Ia menggunakan tulisan yang besar dan adakalanya diiringi audio yang memberi penerangan mengenai topik berkenaan. Laman web YouTube pula memaparkan video yang mengandungi rakaman sesuatu pengajaran, penjelasan, proses atau sebuah lakonan.

LAMAN web Blendspace memudahkan pelajar mendapat bahan pembelajaran daripada pengajar.

Ruang pengajar muat naik bahan pengajaran

Selain itu, pelajar juga boleh membuka akaun dan melayari laman web Blendspace. Laman web Blendspace menyediakan ruang kepada tenaga pengajar untuk memuat naik bahan pengajaran mereka dan latihan berkaitan dengan topik pengajaran. Pelajar juga boleh menggunakan laman web lain yang mempunyai topik sama atau hampir sama dengan menggunakan Google Scholar.

Penggunaan hyperlink yang ada dalam bahan bacaan turut memberi kemudahan kepada pelajar melayari laman web berkaitan. Ini memudahkan mereka membina pengetahuan asas mengenai topik ingin mereka fahami. Pengetahuan asas ini seterusnya membantu pelajar memahami bahan bacaan lebih sukar. Ini memandangkan mereka boleh mengaitkan pengetahuan dari bahan bacaan atau laman web lain kepada bahan asal yang ingin mereka fahami.

Ada laman web yang menggunakan saiz tulisan terlalu rapat, padat dan kecil. Situasi ini menyebabkan pelajar kurang minat ketika membaca bahan berkenaan dan mudah hilang tumpuan terutama pelajar dewasa kerana mata mudah sakit apabila perlu membaca bahan bacaan dalam situasi berkenaan.

Warna latar belakang dan iklan yang tidak berkaitan juga mampu mengganggu pembacaan pelajar. Bagi membantu mengatasi masalah ini, pelajar boleh diajar menggunakan Zoom atau copy dan paste maklumat berkaitan dan memindahkannya ke perisian Microsoft Word. Ini membantu pelajar membaca dalam keadaan lebih selesa kerana mereka boleh membesarkan ukuran tulisan dan menukar jenis tulisan mengikut keselesaan dan kesesuaian.

Selain itu, mereka juga boleh membuang iklan yang mampu mengganggu tumpuan mereka. Perisian Microsoft Word  juga dapat membantu pembaca dengan menyediakan kemudahan seperti Synonyms, Translate dan Search with Bing. Pelajar juga boleh menulis komen dan menukar warna sesuatu ayat bagi tujuan ulang kaji dan sewaktu membuat nota.

Satu lagi strategi pembacaan adalah dengan melakukan perbincangan bersama rakan-rakan. Perbincangan boleh dilakukan secara bersemuka atau secara atas talian seperti aplikasi WhatsApp, Telegram dan Facebook.

ANTARA laman web dan kamus dalam talian yang memberikan pelbagai kemudahan kepada pelajar.

Perbincangan guna kumpulan WhatsApp

Pelajar boleh membuka sebuah kumpulan perbincangan menggunakan kumpulan WhatsApp. Adakalanya jadual kerja yang padat menyebabkan pelajar tidak dapat memperuntukkan masa bagi berbincang secara bersemuka.

Dengan itu, perbincangan atas talian adalah kemudahan yang boleh digunakan untuk tujuan lebih memberi faedah. Pelajar boleh mengajukan sebarang pertanyaan dan rakan lain boleh menjawab dengan cepat walaupun mereka tidak berada berdekatan.

Pengetahuan pelajar akan saling lengkap melengkapi. Pelajar akan berasa mereka tidak lagi sunyi. Mereka akan lebih bermotivasi untuk belajar. Moto yang selalu saya gunakan bersama pelajar ialah ‘Sharing is Caring’.

Ada juga pelajar yang kurang terbabit dalam perbincangan secara bersemuka dalam kelas, tetapi menjadi aktif sewaktu perbincangan atas talian. Mereka berasa diberi peluang yang sama rata dan tidak perlu menonjolkan suara kuat dan bentuk fizikal.

Ada pelajar yang berasa suara mereka terlalu perlahan atau rupa fizikal mereka kurang menarik dan keadaan ini menjadikan mereka malu untuk berbincang secara bersemuka. Pelajar boleh memperbetulkan ayat dan isi perbincangan mereka sehingga mereka yakin untuk dikongsikan secara bersama.

Penggunaan aplikasi WhatsApp dan Telegram adalah perbincangan yang sangat popular kini kerana ia percuma. Gambar, pautan serta video boleh dikongsi.

Kesimpulannya, pembacaan pada abad ke-21 banyak membabitkan penggunaan gajet dan internet bagi membantu pelajar dalam meningkatkan tahap pemahaman mereka. Oleh itu, strategi pembacaan perlu diubah selari perubahan masa dan keperluan.

Sumber diperolehi daripada Berita Harian Online

Rencana

Transforming classroom learning

Artikel ditulis oleh Hazlina Aziz

SK Ulu Daro students working on laptops during lessons.

SITUATED 150km away from Sibu is the small town of Daro in the district of Mukah, Sarawak where the majority of its residents work as farmers and fishermen.

To get to Daro, one needs to cross two rivers by ferry. The journey takes two to four hours depending on the queue at each river.

The place sounds remote, with the exception of one feature — the use of technology for teaching and learning.

At SK Ulu Daro, teacher Khairul Azlan Mohd Faizul and his pupils are no strangers to computers.

Initially, Khairul Azlan who has been teaching maths and English for four years, found his lessons repetitive and his pupils were not showing much interest and excitement in class.

“I knew I had to do something to get them focused and interested in my teaching in class. Since the pupils were rarely exposed to technology, I decided to bring them to the computer lab for a change,“ said Khairul Azlan.

Wan Juliana Wan Asharuddin and the team she coached are the second runner-up under the Decomposition category for the Educator’s Challenge.

Although Internet connectivity at the school was an issue and there were a minimum number of devices in the lab, he saw the transformation in his pupils when he introduced them to technology.

“They were much more focused and it was obvious that they were having more fun learning while taking turns to explore the wonder of computers.

“The experience had sparked curiosity in them. That was when I slowly implemented technology in my lessons,“ he added.

His journey in applying technology in his lessons was just the beginning as he ventured further when he was introduced to the Microsoft Innovative Educator (MIE) programme.

TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

The MIE programme has attracted more than 150,000 educators globally who have joined the Microsoft Educator Community (MEC). Having learnt the fundamentals of applying technology to education, they use Microsoft tools such as Windows, Office 365 and Skype in class.

 

“For teachers to hack lesson plans, they have to make them better by ensuring that in addition to computational thinking, they carry not only equity for all students but also empower them to be creative and curious” — WAN JULIANA WAN ASHARUDDIN, MARA creative technology and multimedia division assistant director

To be a certified MIE, the educator must earn 1,000 points by completing online courses, contributing lesson plans, participating in Skype activities and connecting with other educators across the globe.

“I was introduced to the MIE programme at a course in Pusat Kegiatan Guru. I was among nine other teachers who have been using technology in their lessons. We were asked to nominate ourselves to be MIE Experts (MIEEs). I was among four teachers from Daro selected to attend a local forum,“ added Khairul Azlan, sharing his first exposure to the programme.

Teachers who become skilled at integrating technology into the classroom can self-nominate to join the MIEE programme. If selected, they will be a part of the exclusive programme to lead innovation in education and advocate and share their thoughts on the effective use of technology in education with peers and policymakers.

At the technology showcase for classroom solutions during E2. (From left) Wan Azrina Muhamad Zuki, Nur Hayati Shahrome, Khairul Azlan Mohd Faizul, Mohamad Haniff Hasan and Wan Juliana Wan Asharuddin (standing).

This year, Khairul Azlan and three other Malaysian teachers were chosen as MIEEs based on the technology-infused lesson plans they had submitted earlier. The other teachers were Wan Azrina Muhamad Zuki (from SMK Kubang Kerian, Kelantan), Mohamad Haniff Hasan (SK Jasin, Melaka) and Nur Hayati Shahrome (Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Kuala Kubu Baru).

As MIEEs, they have the chance to attend Microsoft Education Exchange (E2), an annual three-day event. At the E2, MIEEs share how they integrate Microsoft technologies into the classroom in innovative ways. They also celebrate the achievements of educators who combine content, pedagogy and technology in exemplary ways to prepare students for success in the digital age.

This year‘s E2 event was held in Singapore last month.

MIEE LESSONS

Trying to relate a topic on statistics with a global current issue in a lesson gained Wan Azrina the chance to attend E2 as an MIEE.

“I created the Food for Thought project for students to foster awareness on food waste through creative ways. My students had to research the issue before they presented the statistics on food waste problems in Malaysia and globally,“ said Wan Azrina who teaches mathematics and basic computer science at a secondary school in Kelantan,

Khairul Azlan Mohd Faizul (fifth from left) and his team members receiving the second runner-up award under the Abstraction Category. Together with them is Anthony Salcito (second from left).

In the project-based learning approach, students had to create a poster using Microsoft Office, design 2D and 3D food waste tanks using Microsoft Paint 3D and develop a computer game on the same theme.

They then used the Virtual Learning Environment platform to place their work to promote awareness on food waste to other students.

On the other hand, English teacher Mohamad Haniff went big with his lesson to teach primary schoolchildren language and instil entrepreneurship. He was inspired by A. J Juliani (author of Empower: What Happens When Students Own Their Learning), www.geniushour.com and Karen A. Kruger, one of the teachers who promotes Genius Hour, a movement that allows students to follow their passion and explore creativity in the classroom.

“The lesson is based on the deep learning framework and implemented using an experiential learning model by David Kolb, an inquiry-based learning method by Jerome Bruner and an independent learning model.

“Students were given an opportunity to determine their passion by answering several inquiry-based questions. Then they researched into their interest and planned a project before they shared all these with the public in a showcase event.

“The end products from these students included short documentary videos, clothes collections, water rockets and scientific experiments.“

Through this lesson, he said, his students were not just learning English, they were also using the language in real life. They felt the importance of mastering the language and this motivated them to learn more.

A computer science teacher with six years of teaching experience, Nur Hayati got her students to predict their examination results using Excel.

Wan Azrina Muhamad Zuki explaining her lesson to another educator at the Learning Marketplace.

“Students collected data at Forms.com, analysed their examination results and used the Count IF function in Excel to predict their next semester‘s results.“

At E2, these teachers showcased their activities with their students at the Learning Marketplace and took home inspiring ideas from others.

For the first time, a Malaysian was selected as an MIE Fellow to represent the country at E2. MARA creative technology and multimedia division assistant director Wan Juliana Wan Asharuddin was chosen for her dedication in working with Microsoft and educators to transform classroom learning.

EDUCATOR‘S CHALLENGE

The E2 is an event to not only recognise and celebrate educators but also to collaborate and share their experiences with MIEEs from all over the world.

Participants are divided into 53 teams to compete in the Educator‘s Challenge. Each team selected and hacked an existing lesson plan (chosen from five given) according to one of the four categories of computational thinking: Abstraction, Pattern Recognition, Decomposition and Algorithmic Thinking.

“Computational thinking is a way of pondering on problems similar to mathematical and scientific thinking,“ explained Wan Juliana, who has coached MARA teachers to become MIEEs since 2016.

“It is the thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution in such a way the computer can effectively carry out.“

She added, decomposition, for instance, is useful in helping to determine the unknown as the process involves breaking down a complex problem or system into smaller and more manageable parts.

“Decomposition means breaking things that make up the larger problem into smaller pieces. For example in teaching the order of adjectives, there is a pattern to construct a sentence according to the correct order,“ she added.

“For teachers to hack lesson plans, they have to make them better by ensuring that in addition to computational thinking, they carry not only equity for all students but also empower them to be creative and curious.“

As a MIE Fellow, Wan Juliana was also given the responsibility to coach a team to hack a lesson during E2.

“Fellows were briefed on coaching through Skype calls with Microsoft in the United States. We need to not only know the four computational thinking aspects, we were also asked to take the one-hour computational thinking course at the MEC website.“

The team members from Vietnam, Sri Lanka and New Zealand whom she coached were the second runner-up for the Decomposition category at E2. Judging was based on four categories: Communication, Innovation, Collaboration and Equity.

For Khairul Azlan, his trip to Singapore will not be the end of his journey in transforming education in class after his experience working with the all-male team of teachers from New Zealand, France and South Korea.

“We were coached by a MIE Fellow from Singapore. We also used the Microsoft translator app to help with communication as not all members were fluent in English. I learnt so much. It has taught me to cope with different styles of working as well as understanding each member‘s strengths and weaknesses, and supporting each other to complete the challenge in a short time.“

For the challenge, his team was second runner-up in the Abstraction category for the Educator‘s Challenge.

“And prior to leaving for Singapore to attend E2, my school‘s Internet connection was upgraded. It‘s time to explore further,“ said Khairul Azlan, beaming with happiness.

ROLE AS AN EDUCATOR

For decades, learning institutions have been touched by technology‘s influence — networking and computer labs, software applications, the Internet, gaming and social networking. Even though technology is an accelerator, it does not enable much change in the classroom.

Microsoft education vice-president Anthony Salcito said: “It is not really about technology but it is how you structure your role as an educator.

“Technology alone cannot build 21st century skills in students without the power of the educator and there is impact when both technology and the teacher are brought together, and recognised for their achievements.

“If an educator embraces the reality that technology is all around us — for instance, how we find information, how we share ideas and then collaborate with one another — he will understand that his role is changing.“

He added that an educator‘s job is not just about delivering content. In inspiring students to pursue their passion, they must also encourage them to use resources appropriately to make the right decisions.

“An educator must further enable students to make these connections; students should not only use resources that are provided by teachers in class.

“When the role of learning expands far beyond the textbook or the 50 minutes of a science lesson, students can explore and be curious. Taking advantage of all the resources for classroom projects expands the role of learning than ever before.

“A great teacher is not necessarily one who uses technology every day in class. He embraces the reality that technology exists in school and outside it. Teachers do not need to be experts in technology to be powered by this new way of learning.

“Opening that role, expanding the potential of how you can extend your lesson plan or conversation in class — that‘s what every educator should do.“

While teaching as a job is secure from replacement by technology and not amenable to automation, Salcito said the approach must change to prepare students for the Fourth Industry Revolution.

“The role of an educator is not diminished by technology. The future of education is already here and you are missing an unbelievable number of opportunities if you are still debating how technology can benefit students.“

Sumber diperolehi daripada New Straits Times Online